What is Narratology ?
What is Narrative ?
Narratology is a term coined in French, narratologie, by Tzvetan Todorov in his book Grammaire du Décaméron. Narratology is the study of narrative, narrative structure and the way they affect our perception. It provides terms and concepts for the discussion of narrative and narration.
Narrative is the art, technique, or process of telling a story
An account or a recital of an event or a series of events, either true or fictitious. Story refers to the actual chronological sequence of events as they actually occurred in the time-space universe of the narrative. Stories are rarely recounted in strict chronological sequence; they often begin in the middle to create dramatic effect. Narrative quite often reworks discursively the simple chronology of its story. Context and background are added later. Literary devices are used to augment complexity and drama thus creating a plot.
Narration refers to the act of transmitting a story.
Discourse refers to the manner that story is presented. It refers to all the material an author or teller adds to a story: similes, metaphors, verse or prose, etc. In film, framing, cutting, camera movement, camera angles, music, etc. can be considered.
A narrator is voice that tells a story. The narrator has definite attributes and limitations that are crucial for the way the story is perceived by the reader. The most important aspect of the narrator is the point-of-view from which the story is told. Point-of-view consists of corporal form, physical position, bias and grammatical stance.
Diegesis is the telling of the story. A narrator describes events in the narrative, addressing the audience directly describing events and the state of mind and emotions of the characters. Diegesis includes the entire temporal and spatial context of the story.
Mimesis to the showing of a story. An omniscient incorporeal entity reveals the setting and events but a character's inner thoughts and emotions are shown only through external actions.
Continuity is consistency of the characteristics of persons, plot, objects, places and events as perceived by the reader or viewer.
Verisimilitude refers to the extent to which the characters and actions in a narrative conform to our sense of reality. A story with a high degree of verisimilitude is very realistic and believable; it is Said to be "true to life."
Verisimilitude can be created by the specific forms of narration such as:
A False Document is a form of narrative that presents a story as a record in some nonexistent document. This form of narration is used to create a sense of authenticity beyond the normally expected suspension of disbelief in the reader. It can also be used to put a certain distance between a text and its author.
Metafiction is a form of narration that deliberately denies the suspension of disbelief in order to constantly remind the reader that they are reading a book.
Suspension of disbelief
In order to enter the world of the story, a reader or viewer must be willing to override the need for scientific or logical rectitude and ignore minor inconsistencies. A reader or viewer must suspend disbelief and accept a story's diegesis.
Breaking the fourth wall
The fourth wall is the imaginary invisible wall at the front of the stage in a proscenium theatre, through which the audience sees the action of the play. Although it originated in theatre, the term has been adopted by other media, such as cinema, television and literature, to refer to the boundary between the fiction and the audience. Through suspension of disbelief an audience will accept the presence of the fourth wall, allowing them to enjoy the fiction as if they were observing real events.
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